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Saturday, May 16, 2015

Seaberry/Seabuckthorn Safety and Nutrition - A Summary Study from Technologiko Ekpedeftiko Idrima Peloponnisou in Greece

Hippophae rhamnoides: safety and nutrition

G. Zakynthinos and T. Varzakas
TEI PELOPONNESE, Dept. of Food Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Food technology and Nutrition
ABSTRACT:
KEYWORDS:
Introduction
Hippophae rhamnoides, known as sea buckthorn, belongs to the Elaeagnaceae family. It explants, as a large shrub in parts of Eurasia.
Hippophae rhamnoides is one of the oldest land plants, dating from the Ice Age. The first references of its therapeutic effects appear in the 4th century BC. According to historical sources,Hippophae was part of Alexander’s the Great the army diet. It had been observed that both patients and injured horses were treated, by leaves and fruits of this plant. References to its usage are also found in both Tibetan tradition and Chinese medicine. Other sources report that during 13th century, Jenkins Khan had used it in his campaigns. Finally, in 1929 the first biochemical analysis of Hippophae fruits took place [1]. Since then the knowledge of its health properties increases.
Hippophae rhamnoides includes vitamins A and C, alpha-tocopherol, large amounts of carotenoids and vitamin E, minerals (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Se), monosaccharides, amino acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, glycerolphospholipids, phytosterols, zeaxanthin esters, polyphenolic compounds (see Table 1), etc. Its composition varies according to origin, climate, and the extraction procedure used. Vitamin C is one of the major vitamins contained in Hippophae rhamnoides. Its fruit provides about 400-600 mg vitamin C/100 gr [1].
Category
Constituent examples
Triterpenoids
Oleanolic acid, 3-o-trans-p-coumaroyl-oleanolic acid, 3-o-cafeenoyl-oleanolic acid, 2-o-trans-p-coumaroyl-maslinic acid, 2-o-caffenoyl-maslinic acid, ursolic acid, 19-hydroxy-methyl-ursolic acid
Vitamins
C, A, E, zeaxanthin esters, b-carotene, a-tocopherol, folate
Minerals
Ca, Mg, K, Se, Na, Fe, Zn, P, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, Va, Mb, Al, Li, Cd, As
Heavy metals
Cd, Pb, Hg
EFA
Palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, a-linolenic acid
Flavonoids
Quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, cathechin, rutin, myricetin
Tannins
Hippophaenin A, hippophaenin B
Lipopolysaccharide
Octacosananoic acid
Phenols
Ellagic acid, ferulic acid
Monosaccharides
Xylose
Volatile esters
Ethyl-dodecanoate, ethyl-octanoate, ethyldecanoate
Glucosides
1-0-hexadecanolenic acid
Sterols
b-sitosterol, stigmastonol, campesterol, stigmastadievol
Aldehydes
1-decanol, circiumaldehyde, 5-hydroxy-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde
Polyalcohols
Mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol
Glycosphingolipids
Hippophae cerebroside
Free aminoacids
Aspartic acid, praline, threonine, serine, lysine, valine, alanine, phenylalanine, glutamine, isoleucine, glycine, histidine, tyrosine, arginine, cysteine, methionine

Because of its components Hippophae rhamnoides exhibits numerous beneficial actions: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antineoplastic, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective.
Figure 1



Usages-Indications
It possesses strong antioxidant properties so it is used to improve blood pressure and lipids, to prevent and control cardiovascular symptoms (eg angina), to reduce free radicals levels and prevent atheroma.
Both Hippophae rhamnoides leaves and flowers are used in arthritis, gastrointestinal ulcers, gout, and rashes. Its fruits are also used to prevent infection and boost immune function.
There are reports of its administration as an expectorant in treating common cold, asthma and pneumonia; as an aid to improve vision and prevent nyctalopia.
It also helps to heal wounds/injuries from burns, acne, skin ulcers; it may help to improve eczema skin lesions and dermatitis symptoms.
Hippophae rhamnoides seems to reduce cancer morbidity and chemotherapy toxicity, alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms (ulcer, reflux) and detain the dementia onset in aged individuals.
Finally, it seems to participate in body’s protection against radiance effects (UV, X-rays, and radioactivity).
Safety
It is considered to be a safe nutritional supplement, with no evidence of toxicity, when used according to the instructions of a doctor or a clinical dietitian. Clinical research suggests thatHippophae rhamnoides can be used safely for up to 90 days [4]. Available reliable information concerning pregnancy and lactation is inadequate.
Effectiveness
Reliable evidence for Hippophae rhamnoides efficacy is relatively weak. More extensive clinical research so as to study its effects is required.
Health applications
Cardiovascular disease
Preliminary clinical research in China [5] suggests that taking 10 mg flavonoids extract fromHippophae rhamnoides, 3 times daily for six weeks, reduces blood cholesterol levels, blanks out angina, and improves cardiovascular function in patients with ischemic heart disease. There are no side effects reported on kidney and liver. It was considered that this extract can reduce myocardial stress by reducing proinflammatory factors.
In a clinical study [6], dried Hippophae rhamnoides emulsion was given to 102 people with hyperlipidemia, for 12 consecutive weeks; they had their blood lipids regularly measured (4th, 8th and 12th week). Results showed that in 4 weeks, Hippophae rhamnoides lowered total blood cholesterol, atherosclerotic index (TC-HDL/HDL ratio), and increased HDL-C. Triglycerides decreased by 19.2%, mean atherosclerotic index decreased by 28.2%, and mean HDL-C increased by 18.1%, after treatment.
Two hundred twenty nine healthy participants, divided into two groups, were given low-doseHippophae rhamnoides fruit supplement or placebo, for three months. It appeared that it increased fasting plasma flavonols concentrations, but it did not significantly affect blood lipids, in healthy volunteers [7, 8].
Common cold
Preliminary clinical research shows that consumption of 28 gr Hippophae rhamnoides mashed fruits per day for 90 days does not significantly reduce either the risk of common cold or symptoms duration [4]. Oral administration of 500 mg alcohol extract to sensitive to cold people, every day for three months, reduced cardiovascular effects of stress, from cold [9].
Digestive infection
Clinical research supports that eating 28 gr Hippophae rhamnoides mashed fruits per day, for 90 days, significantly reduces the risk of infection of the digestive tract [4].
Liver Cirrhosis
Clinical research suggests that taking Hippophae rhamnoides extract may reduce liver inflammation [10].

Figure 2



In this study, 50 cirrhotic patients were divided into 2 groups. Group A was given 15 g Hippophae rhamnoides extract, 3 times a day for six months. Group B was given a vitamin B complex supplement, three times a day for six months. After treatment, values of laminin, hyaluronic acid, collagen III and IV and total bile acids were decreased significantly vs. control group (see Figure 2).
Dermatological issues
Palmitoleic acid, contained in Hippophae rhamnoides oil, is a component of our skin, and is thought to help healing wounds and burns – when topically applied. Oral administration of palmitoleic acid may nourish the skin and help in various dermatological issues such as atopic dermatitis.
After a 4-month administration of Hippophae rhamnoides oil in patients with atopic dermatitis, remission of symptoms was observed [11]. 49 patients received 5g per day seed oil, pulp oil or paraffin, for four months. Researchers found that Hippophae rhamnoides seed oil increased significantly the proportion of alpha-linolenic in plasma neutral lipids, alphalinolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids in plasma phospholipids. After one month of supplementation with seed oil, there were positive correlations between symptom improvement and the increase in proportions of alpha-linolenic acid in plasma phospholipids and neutral lipids.  In plasma phospholipids and neutral lipids, the pulp oil increased the proportion of palmitoleic acid (p<0 .05="" acid.="" acid="" addition="" and="" concentration="" docosapentanoic="" efficiency="" glycerolphospholipids.="" greater="" i="" implies="" in="" increased="" integrating="" lowered="" metabolising="" nbsp="" of="" oil="" palmitate="" pentadecanoic="" percentage="" reduced="" seed="" skin="" that="" the="">Hippophae rhamnoides 
alpha-linolenic acid (vs. linoleic acid), and providing a more stable fatty acids composition of skin glycerolphospholipids.
Burns
Wang et al in a controlled study in 151 patients with burns used Hippophae rhamnoides oil or petroleum jelly (control), on their wounds. They reported that the oil reduced wound swelling and relieved pain. Compared to control group, patients in the intervention group reported statistically significant decreased exudation, greater pain relief and faster wound healing.
Sea buckthorn oil is widely used alone or in various preparations topically applied for burns, scalds, ulcerations, and infections. Hippophae oil has UV-blocking activity as well as emollient properties and promotes regeneration of tissues (12). The fruit may also be used for benefiting the hair: the name hippophae, means shiny horse, and refers to the good coat developed by horses feeding off the plant.
Mechanism of action
Cardiovascular effects
Flavonoids from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits are thought to reduce incidence of cardiovascular diseases by reducing cholesterol, inflammation and platelet aggregation [6].
In healthy volunteers, consumption of 28 gr Hippophae rhamnoides mashed fruits per day for 90 days, significantly reduced inflammation rate, and C-reactive protein (CRP) compared to placebo [4]. However, the addition of these flavonols in oatmeal does not appear to significantly reduce CRP, homocysteine or levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), in humans. Preliminary clinical research in humans indicates Hippophae rhamnoides oil may prevent platelet aggregation [13].
Supplementation of Hippophae rhamnoides juice with vitamin C, alpha tocopherol, beta-carotene and flavonoids increased plasma HDL-C levels by 20% in healthy male volunteers [14]. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of LDL-C to oxidation was observed in these subjects.
Antidiabetic effects
Thirty children with insulin dependent diabetes, were given a concentrated supplement, ofHippophae rhamnoides and blueberry for 60 days (see Figure 3). After two months of treatment both erythrocytes’ superoxide dismutase and C-peptide were significantly increased, whereas glycated hemoglobin was significantly decreased [15].



Figure 3

Antioxidant effects
Hippophae rhamnoides leaf extract protected albino male mice from chromium induced oxidative damage [16]. It may also inhibit the effects of oxidative stress on erythrocytes of nicotine exposed mice [17].
Anticancer activity
Animal models show that Hippophae rhamnoides juice reduces the incidence and growth of experimentally induced tumours. Preliminary investigations show that Hippophae rhamnoides oil may reduce chemotherapy toxicity. Extracts, which mainly contain flavonoids, may protect bone marrow by radiation, and can possibly help its faster recovery [18]. Hematopoietic system of mice fed with Hippophae rhamnoides oil, rebounded quickly after a large dose of chemotherapy [19].
Gastroprotective activity
Hippophae rhamnoides likely normalizes gastric acid secretion and reduces inflammation, as well as proinflammatory factors. Preliminary research on animal models showed that Hippophae rhamnoides extract and two components of this oil (beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside and aglycone) may exert protective properties against gastric ulcers [20]. In addition, seed oil seems likely to improve the symptoms of reflux [21].
In Wistar albino rats with ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, the effects of Hippophae rhamnoidesextract (HRe-1), melatonin or omeprazole on glutathione levels (GSH) of gastric tissue were examined [22]. It seemed that HRe-1 induced close to normal glutathione levels (see Figure 4), more than the melatonin, and helped effectively in preventing gastric ulcer formation.

Figure 4

 

Hepatoprotective activity
In animal models, it was showed that Hippophae rhamnoides seed oil can protect liver from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride, ethyl alcohol or acetaminophen [23].
Protection against radiation
In mice fed with Hippophae rhamnoides fruit, protection from deadly radiation has been reported. Goel et al [24] demonstrated that Hippophae rhamnoides alcoholic extract contributed to survival of 82% of mice compared with no survival of the control group. As shown, this extract caused a strong suppression of chromatin, which could make cells resistant even to a radiation dose of 1000 Gy. Also, it suspended radiation and TBHP induced damage on DNA chains, in a dose dependent manner. This ability to protect DNA could be mainly attributed to direct modulation of chromatin.
Antimicrobial effects
Some studies suggest that H. rhamnoides L. exerts antimicrobial effects. Phenolic compounds of its fruit seem to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria growth [25].
Immunomodulatory effects
Hippophae rhamnoides leaves extract appears to possess significant immunomodulatory effect. In chromium-induced immunosuppression in animals, leaves extract (100 mg / ml) inhibited production of free radicals [26]. Moreover, it stimulated production of both IL-2 and c-IFN, and inhibited chromium-induced reduction of their secretion; however, it did not alter the IL-4 production.
Neurological effects
After two weeks of Hippophae rhamnoides fruit extract (4.0 mg / kg body weight) administration, Wistar albino male rats showed significant increase in mobility. Repeated treatment with haloperidol (2 times/day, 3 mg/kg weight for 2 weeks) – a powerful tranquilizer/antipsychotic drug – reduced significantly (p <0 .01="" 5-hydroxy-tryptamine="" and="" both="" brain="" by="" hormone="" i="" in="" involved="" metabolism="" nbsp="" of="" prevented="" reduction="" serotonin="" the="" this="" tryptophan="" was="">Hippophae rhamnoides 
extract.
Side effects
It should be avoided by people with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Hippophae rhamnoidesand its components. Incidentally, there are no side effects reported. Hippophae rhamnoidescould cause excessive bleeding if used postoperatively. Patients should stop consuming it at least two weeks before surgery.
Contraindications
It is not recommended while taking antihypertensive medication [28] (ACE inhibitors or A2R blockers), anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents [12, 13], and anticancer agents (especially cyclophosphamide) [29-31]. In patients with diabetes mellitus or on hypoglycemic agents,Hippophae rhamnoides’ flavonoids may reduce blood glucose, as demonstrated in animal models [32]. In patients with autoimmune diseases or on immunosuppressants, it can increase immune system activity [33, 34].
Interaction with drugs
Hippophae rhamnoides may interact with antibiotics [35] or medicines for blood pressure, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or competitors receptor II antagonists [28].
It may increase the risk of bleeding when taken along with drugs that reduce blood coagulation [13, 14, 36], such as aspirin, anticoagulants (eg warfarin, heparin), antiplatelet drugs (eg clopidogrel), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ibuprofen or naproxen).
It can also reduce blood glucose levels [11, 32]. Caution is advised when using medications that may also help reduce blood glucose. Patients taking oral agents for diabetes or insulin should be monitored closely by their doctor or clinical dietitian. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Use with caution if you receive hypocholesterolemic therapy [5, 6] due to risk of cumulative effects.
The antioxidant activity of Hippophae rhamnoides is unclear. Use with caution with antioxidant supplements because of possible additive effects.
Hippophae rhamnoides can reduce the formation of ulcers [22, 37]. Use with caution if you take antiulcer treatment because of possible additive effects.
It may significantly affect the action of certain immunosuppressive drugs [26] and chemotherapy formulations [18]. Use with caution if you are taking immunosuppressive drugs because of possible additive effects.
Interactions with Herbs & Supplements
Simultaneous use of Hippophae rhamnoides with herbs that prevent platelet aggregation [13] can theoretically increase the risk of bleeding. Some of these herbs and supplements include: ginkgo biloba, cloves, garlic, oil, vitamin E, the Panax ginseng, the ginger, red clover (red clover), turmeric, the chrysanthemum, the horse chestnut, Angela etc.
Caution is recommended in case of concurrent Hippophae rhamnoides use with herbs or supplements that lower blood pressure [28, 38] (fish oil, coenzyme Q10, garlic, ginseng, andrographis, peptides of casein, cat’s claw, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theianine etc.) and / or blood glucose (beta-glucan, bitter melon, ginseng, gymnema, chromium).
Interactions with food
There is no interaction known.
Interactions with laboratory tests
No interaction is known.
MANUFACTURE OF SEA BUCKTHORN PRODUCTS
Separation of useful components of the berries with the use of a press/decanter yields the key products of juice, dried fruit nutrients, and oil from the seeds and pulp. The juice containing oil and water passes through a disk stack centrifuge (cream separator) and yields juice and sediment. The sediment passes then through a spray drier to yield the nutrient supplement in powdered form. Through the cream separator we also get the cream which yields the sea buckthorn pulp oil through extraction.
Seed oil can be obtained from the press/decanter through the press cake, the finisher, the drier and the oil extractor.
Residues can be utilized as valuable animal feed.
New technologies, involving supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, are now being used in China to efficiently produce the oil products (39).
References

  1. Bilaloglu Guliyeva, V., M. Gulb, and A. Yildirima, Hippophae rhamnoides L: chromatographic methods to determine chemical composition, use in traditional medicine and pharmacological effects. Journal of Chromatography B, 2004. 812: p. 291-397.
  2. Cakir, A., Essential oil and fatty acid composition of the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea Buckthorn) and Myrtus communis L. from Turkey. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 2004. 32(9): p. 809-16.
  3. Zheng, R.X., et al., Chemical constituents from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides.Natural Product Research, 2009. 23(15): p. 1451-6.
  4. Larmo, P., J. Alin, and E. Salminen, Effects of sea buckthorn berries on infections and inflammation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2008. 62: p. 1123-30.
  5. Suomela, J., M. Ahotupa, and B. Yang, Absorption of flavonols derived from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and their effect on emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease in humans. J Agric Food Chem, 2006. 54: p. 7364-9.
  6. Zhang, M., Treatment of ischemic heart diseases with flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides. Chin J Cardiol, 1987. 15: p. 97-9.
  7. Yang, C., A clinical study of reducing fat and anti-oxidation of dried Hippoplae emulsion. Hippophae, 1995. 8: p. 33-5.
  8. Larmo, P., et al., Effect of a low dose of sea buckthorn berries on circulating concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and flavonols in healthy adults. Eur J Nutr, 2009. 48(5): p. 277-82.
  9. Dubey, G., A. Agrawal, and S. Dixit, Role of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis following cold stress. Journal of Natural Remedies, 2003. 3: p. 36-40.
  10. Gao, Z., et al., Effect of Sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: A clinical study. World J. Gastroenterol, 2003. 9(7): p. 1615-7.
  11. Yang, Baoru, et al., Effects of dietary supplementation of sea buckthorn oils on fatty acids in patients with atopic dermatitis, 1999 Proceedings of the International Sea Buckthorn Congress, ICRTS, Beijing.
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  14. Eccleston, C., et al., Effects of an antioxidant-rich juice (sea buckthorn) on risk factors for coronary heart disease in humans. J Nutr Biochem, 2002. 13(6): p. 346-54.
  15. Nemes-Nagy, E., et al., Effect of a dietary supplement containing blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate on antioxidant capacity in type 1 diabetic children. Acta Physiol Hung, 2008. 95(4): p. 383-93.
  16. Geetha, S., et al., Evaluation of antioxidant activity of leaf extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) on chromium (VI) induced oxidative stress in albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 2003. 87(2-3): p. 247-51.
  17. Suleyman, H., et al., Beneficial effects of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on nicotine induced oxidative stress in rat blood compared with vitamin E. Biol Pharm Bull., 2002. 25(9): p. 1133-6.
  18. Agrawala, P. and H. Goel, Protective effect of RH-3 with special reference to radiation induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow. Indian J Exp Biol, 2002. 40(5): p. 525-30.
  19. Chen, Y., Study on the effects of the oil from Hippophae rhamnoides in hematopoiesis.Chin Herb Drugs, 2003. 26: p. 572-5.
  20. Amosova, E., E. Zueva, and T. Razina, [The search for new antiulcer agents from plants in Siberia and Far East] (abstract). [Article in Russian]. Eskp Klin Farmakol, 1998. 61: p. 31-5.
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  22. Suleyman, H., et al., The effects of Hippophae rhamnoeides L. Extract on ethanol induced gastric lession and gastric tissue glutathione level in rats: a comperative study with melatonin and omeprazole. Indian J Pharmacol, 2001. 33: p. 77-81.
  23. Cheng, T., Acute toxicity of flesh oil of Hippophae rhamnoides and its protection against hepatic injury. J Trad Chin Med, 1990. 15: p. 45-47, 64.
  24. Goel, H., et al., Radioprotection by herbal preparation of , RH-3, against whole body lethal irradiation in mice. Phytomedicine, 2002. 9: p. 15-25.
  25. Puupponen-Pimia, R., et al., Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries. J Appl Microbiol, 2001. 90(4): p. 494-507.
  26. Geetha, S., et al., Immunomodulatory effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against chromium (VI) induced immunosuppression. Mol Cell Biochem, 2005. 278(1-2): p. 101-9.
  27. Batool, F., et al., Oral Supplementation of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L. Spp. Turkestanica) Fruit Extract Modifies Haloperidol Induced Behavioral deficits and Increases Brain Serotonin Metabolism. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 2009. 17(4): p. 257-63.
  28. Zhu, F., M. Zhang, and J. Wang, Inhibitory effect of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L on angiotensin converting enzyme from rabbit. Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacy (China), 2000. 9: p. 95-8.
  29. Boivin, D., et al., Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of TNF-induced activation of NFkappaB by edible berry juice. Anticancer Res, 2007. 27(2): p. 937-48.
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  31. Teng, B., et al., In vitro anti-tumor activity of isorhamnetin isolated from Hippophae rhamnoides L. against BEL-7402 cells. Pharmacol Res, 2006. 54(3): p. 186-94.
  32. Cao, Q., et al., [Effect of flavonoids from the seed and fruit residue of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on glycometabolism in mice]. Zhong.Yao Cai, 2003. 26(10): p. 735-7.
  33. Prakash, H., et al., Modification of gamma radiation induced response of peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes by Hipophae rhamnoides (RH-3) in mice. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (England), 2005. 57: p. 1065-72.
  34. Mishra, K., et al., Effect of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) flavone on immune system: an in-vitro approach. Phytother Res, 2008. 22(11): p. 1490-5.
  35. Li, Y., et al., In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005. 98(3): p. 329-33.
  36. Cheng, J., et al., Inhibitory effects of total flavones of Hippophae Rhamnoides L on thrombosis in mouse femoral artery and in vitro platelet aggregation. Life Sci., 2003.72(20): p. 2263-71.
  37. Xing, J., et al., Effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed and pulp oils on experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats. Fitoterapia, 2002. 73: p. 644-50.
  38. Pang, X., et al., Antihypertensive effect of total flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in sucrose-fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 2008. 117(2): p. 325-31.

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