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Friday, March 22, 2013

German Sea Buckthorn Variety Report

Note: Added Seabuckthorn Honey Mustard Recipe in Seabuckthorn Recipe Cookbook (condiment section)

Breeding  varieties of sea-buckthorn in Germany

Hippophae rhamnoides L. - Leikora

In early 1970, a breeding station in Berlin began with the selection of high yielding sea buckthorn clones suitable for commercial cultivation. The starting materials were used for breeding purposes were mainly wild species  of Hippophae rhamnoides L. found in coastal areas of northern Germany. This work resulted in 5 standard female varieties which have been successful around the world. 
The first came in 1979.  Leikora is a late maturing variety which is characterized by large fruit, relatively high content of vitamin C and significant amounts of oil. However, it holds the fruit on the plant very strongly, thereby making harvesting difficult. Additionally, when the fruit laden branches re cut during harvest, two years are required before fruit is again available for harvest.
A medium early maturing variety  Hergé  came to market in 1983. It has a significantly lower fruit holding power and produces a very high yield. Hergé has an increased need for water.  A few years  Frugana,  Asko ®  and  Dorana ® came to market.  Frugana and  Asko ®  are have strong growth and ripen approximately the same time.  Asko ®  has a particularly high content of fruit acids.  Dorana ®  provides plenty of vitamin C, but its growth is relatively weak, it is less suitable for commercial cultivation, but it is very suitable for hobby cultivation and small gardens is useful as an ornamental plant.

Given that sea-buckthorn is dioecious plant, which requires pollinator to pollinate it, four clones have been developed as suitable pollinators. They have been named 
Pollmix ®.   Pollmix 1 ® blooms early (good for Orange Energy, Sirola, Frugana).  Pollmix 2 +4  ® bloom mid March until May (good for Leikora and Hergo). Late flowering clone, Pollmix 3 ® blooms days after Pollmix 1 ® (good for Hergo and Leikora)   Pollmix 5 ®  has a very early flowering date and low spination.  Planning a mix of male pollinators is a good practice.  
In 1980, two new varieties Habego ® (Orange Energy TM)and  brimstone ® were introduced. Both varieties have been tested for many years at several sites for its performance and suitability for commercial cultivation.  They have shown excellent results. 
Habego ®, which was launched in 2005  under the trade brand name Orange Energy TM, originated from a cross Leikora x Pollmix 2 .  It grows very strongly with good side branching. It fruits well and has few thorns.  Fruits are large (100 pieces = 51 g), oblong oval, at full maturity will turn to brilliant orange. It has excellent color and fruit stability, it contains high amounts of these valuable active ingredients:
  • Total acidity: 3.1 to 3.6%
  • ascorbic acid (vitamin C): 149 - 289mg / 100 g fresh mass
  • carotene: from 11.8 to 17.7 mg / 100 g fresh mass
  • tocopherol (vitamin E): 18.9 mg / 100 g fresh mass
  • total fat content: 4.9 to 6.3%
Variety Habego ® recovers well from cutting the fruit laden branches and crops again after two years.  It is a beautiful ornamental plant. Suitable pollinators are Pollmix pollinators.
The new variety 'Sirola® is early and from a cross between the varieties from the Siberian Altai region x Pollmix.  It has an upright growth, and has few thorns and side shoots. The fruit ripens in early August They are large (100 pieces = 52 g), oval, the color is red-orange.The fruits are easily plucked from the branches and have a sweet flavor.
  • ascorbic acid (vitamin C): 127 - 181mg / 100 g fresh mass
  • carotene: from 7.8 to 23.9 mg / 100 g fresh mass
  • Total fat: 5.1%
  • Since the early blooms, requires almost rosaceous pollen as Pollmix Pollmix 1 and 5 ®.
Breeder's objectives:  in 1971, breeding was aimed at: a high performance, thick fruit pedicel, fruit size, high in fruit acids and ascorbic acid, good resilience after cutting, low spination and shorter overall height. After several years of experience breeding objectives are extended to: oil content, carotene and tocopherol content, and the ability to produce fruits which are not strongly attached to branches so the development of new methods for fruit harvest can advance.
Today's requirements for variety:  stable and high yield, good taste, ability to regenerate after pruning, healthy plants (wilting) and extend the harvest season.
Future breeding:  looking for varieties with improved characteristics, individual choice and regional types of cloning, depending on the success of comprehensive qualifying examination, the presence of regional genotypes and a high degree of specialization, possibly selection from crosses of upland types of coastal types Hippophae rhamni. L. ssp. Hippophae fluviatilis x rhamni. L. ssp. maritima.
Variety / year launch
Importance for commercial cultivation
Behavior
Leikora
1979
very suitable
3 yr. cycle yield
strong erect growth
compact plant
harder picking
late ripening time, very attractive fruit stick, high color stability, good taste, vit.C content of 240 mg%, the oil content of 4.9%
Hergé
1983
very suitable
2.The cycle yield
moderate growth
requires good quality soil and irrigation
medium-early ripening time after Askole, very high yields, with the possibility of shaking fruits harvested
Frugana
1986
almost all cultivated
early period of ripening, very outstanding in the field
inappropriate - suitable for hobby growing, weak growth
needs good soil conditions
medium-early ripening time,
poor resilience with regular trimming, high vit.C 340mg%
very suitable
2 yr cycle yield
very good upright growth
slightly branched
early ripening period total acidity 5.3%,
high 
vitamin E
very suitable
2yr cycle yield
strong growth with good side branching
small spines 
medium-early maturing before Leikora, high yields and high color stabile fruits,
carotene 15mg%, oil 5.4%, high in vitamin E
Sirola
2005
inappropriate - suitable for hobby growing moderate upright growth 
and little thorns side shoots
early period of ripening, fruits are red-orange in color, higher sugar content,
rich fruit stick, easy to pick

Sea-buckthorn - growing data 

scored 9 = excellent, 5 = medium, 1 = very bad

Variety
Time of ripening
Growth
Shape crown
Revenues
Suitability for commercial cultivation
Orna-mental value
Suitability for reproduction
ASKO
early
strong
erect
9
9
8
9
Dorana
medium early
weak
widely-spherical
8
7
9
5
Frugana
Early
strong
erect
8
8
5
9
Hergé
medium early
moderate
Oval-spreading
9
9
5
9
Leikora
late
strong
Oval-spreading
8
9
9
9
Orange enegy
medium early
very strong
upright
9
9
9
9
Sirola
very early
strong
upright
8
9
5
7

Sea-buckthorn - characteristics of fruits
fruits Hair: 9 = no, 5 = medium, 1 = very strong
Variety
Size fruits
g/100 berries
Color of fruits
Hair fruits
Acidity
%
Vitamin C
mg/100g
Carotene
mg/100g
Oil content
%
ASKO
29
Orange
5
5.3
269
12.0
3.7
Dorana
25
Orange
7
4.9
340
6.5
3.4
Frugana
40
light orange
8
3.5
160
9.0
4.1
Hergé
37
light orange
7
3.5
150
5.0
4.3
Leikora
56
dark orange
5
3.4
240
6.0
4.9
Orange enegy
51
Orange
8
3.1
149
17.0
6.3
Sirola
47
red-orange
5
3.1
158
16.9
5.1

reference : http://www.shop.zahradnictvolimbach.sk/%C5%A0%C4%BEachtenie-Rakytn%C3%ADka-re%C5%A1etliakov%C3%A9ho-v-Nemecku#.UUyTWxzCaSo


Oyunbileg writes:  Tom, How many sea buckthorn varieties are there in the world?  Oyunbileg, I don't know for sure.  There is a need for regional varieties such as Autumn Glow in Canada and others are in development all over the world.  I hope to develop a variety which is particularly adaptogenic to the northeast United States.  Thanks for the question! You may be interested in a previous post -- Planting a Seabuckthorn Orchard in Mongolia

2 comments:

  1. Hey Tom,

    Where did you find this information

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Meghan, You probably saw this same response on the Foxgreen Farm Facebook page ( https://www.facebook.com/pages/Foxgreen-Farms/238453147394 ). If anyone else is curious the reference link is just below the last chart. Original is in German and this post is a translation with some additions by me. Thanks for the question!

      Delete